I needed to include some diacrites in code but I didn't know how to so I had to look it up. The below is a condensed summary of where this all sits.   There are a large number of written languages on this planet. Each language consists of a number of characters. Some characters are shared across languages (like roman letters), some are unique for a given writing system (hieroglyphs). A diacrite, like é, is just another character.   Characters have been encoded into various character sets